SHORT AND SWEET

 

15.1. Open any page of a book in English and look for the word ‘and’, and you find it all over. This conjunction in Kannada is ‘ಮತ್ತು and ಮತ್ತೂ, and it occurs only once or twice in a text of about thousand words. It is not so only in Kannada, but also in Tamil, Malayalam and Telugu. Moreover, its use in these languages is mostly between two Nouns. It is very rarely used to link two sentences like they do in English quite often. It is profusely used in English between two Verbs. In all the four South Indian languages, the linguistic trick of doing away with ‘and’ is played just by a slight modification of the last syllable (ಅಕ್ಷರ) of the Verb in the infinitive. In Hindi it is done by the word ‘ker’ (means ‘doing’) after the first Verb. Of course, ‘aur’ (means ‘and’) is also used instead, to emphasize the actions of the two Verbs in Hindi. For example, ‘khaaker jaavo’ or ‘kaavo aur jaavo’/ kaane ke baad jaavo (means ‘Eat and go’ or ‘Go after eating’)

Unlike in English, in Kannada, it is possible to do away with ‘ಮತ್ತು even between Noun and Noun when not needed, e.g., ಅಪ್ಪ ಅಮ್ಮ ಬಂದರು (Father and mother came) .

Study the following usages in Kannada to learn the mutations the first Verb undergoes in the Verb+Verb combination. Say the sentences given and make your own sentences using the Verbs you know.

You may also bear in mind that the first Verb in the Verb+Verb combination does not undergo any change for Gender, Number and Tense.

 

IMPERATIVES – INTRANSITIVE

Write and read. ಬರೆದು ಓದು.
Read and write. ಓದಿ ಬರಿ.
Stop and go. ನಿಂತು ಹೋಗು.

 

IMPERATIVES – TRANSITIVE

Read the letter and mail it ಕಾಗದ ಓದಿ ಅಂಚೆಗೆ ಹಾಕು.
Write the letter and give it to me. ಕಾಗದ ಬರೆದು ನನಗೆ ಕೊಡು.
Close the door and open the window. ಬಾಗಿಲು ಮುಚ್ಚಿ ಕಿಟಕಿ ತೆರಿ.

 

FINITE VERBS – INTRANSITIVE

He read and wrote. ಅವನು ಓದಿ ಬರೆದನು.
I ate and slept ನಾನು ಉಂಡು ಮಲಗಿದೆ.
He slipped and fell down. ಅವನು ಜಾರಿ ಬಿದ್ದ.
She slipped and fell down. ಅವಳು ಜಾರಿ ಬಿದ್ದಳು.
They slipped and fell down. ಅವರು ಜಾರಿ ಬಿದ್ದರು.
He ate and grew fat ಅವನು ತಿಂದು ದಪ್ಪಗಾದ.
She ate and grew fat ಅವಳು ತಿಂದು ದಪ್ಪಗಾದಳು.
She wrote and read. ಅವಳು ಬರೆದು ಓದಿದಳು.
They sang and danced . ಅವರು ಹಾಡಿ ಕುಣಿದರು.
The dog barked and bit. ನಾಯಿ ಬೊಗಳಿ ಕಚ್ಚಿತು.

 

FINITE VERBS – TRANSITIVE

Note: The Object of the Verb is given in bold letters.

She ate fruits and drank coffee. ಅವಳು ಹಣ್ಣು ತಿಂದು ಕಾಫಿ ಕುಡಿದಳು
He climbed the tree and plucked the fruit. ಅವನು ಮರ ಹತ್ತಿ ಹಣ್ಣು ಕೊಯ್ದನು.
They broke the lock and opened the box. ಅವರು ಬೀಗ ಮುರಿದು ಪೆಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ತೆರೆದರು.
The cat drank the milk and broke the cup. ಬೆಕ್ಕು ಹಾಲು ಕುಡಿದು ಕಪ್ಪನ್ನು ಒಡೆದುಹಾಕಿತು.

 

15.2. NEGATIVE FORMS

In the Negative form, in English ‘without’ or ‘but’ is used in the place of ‘and’ for Imperatives. ‘Neither ..nor’ is used for Finite Verbs in the Intransitive as well as Transitive. In Kannada, it is as follows:

 

IMPERATIVES – INTRANSITIVE

Read, but don’t write.

ಓದು ಆದರೆ ಬರೆಯಬೇಡ.
or ಓದು, ಬರೆಯಬೇಡ.

Write, but don’t read.

ಬರಿ. ಆದರೆ ಓದಬೇಡ.
or ಬರಿ, ಓದಬೇಡ.

 

IMPERATIVES – TRANSITIVE

Don’t write a reply without reading this letter. ಈ ಪತ್ರ ಓದದೆ ಉತ್ತರ ಬರೆಯಬೇಡ.
ಈ ಪತ್ರ ಓದದೆ = without reading this letter.
Don’t send him money  without informing me. ನನಗೆ ತಿಳಿಸದೆ ಅವನಿಗೆ ಹಣ ಕಳಿಸಬೇಡ.
ನನಗೆ ತಿಳಿಸದೆ = without informing me.

 

FINITE VERBS- INTRANSITIVE

He neither came in nor talked to us.

ಅವನು ಒಳಗೆ ಬರಲೂ ಇಲ್ಲ,
ನಮ್ಮ ಜೊತೆ ಮಾತಾಡಲೂ ಇಲ್ಲ.

Neither he came in nor did he talk to us.
We neither sang nor danced.

ನಾವು ಹಾಡಲೂಇಲ್ಲ,
ನರ್ತಿಸಲೂ ಇಲ್ಲ.

Neither we sang nor did we dance.

 

FINITE VERBS- TRANSITIVE

He neither wrote a letter nor sent money.

ಅವನು ಪತ್ರ ಬರೆಯಲೂ ಇಲ್ಲ,
ಹಣ ಕಳಿಸಲೂ ಇಲ್ಲ.

Neither he wrote a letter nor did he send money.
I neither drank the milk nor ate the bread. ನಾನು ಹಾಲು ಕುಡಿಯಲೂ ಇಲ್ಲ, ಬ್ರೆಡ್ಡು ತಿನ್ನಲೂ ಇಲ್ಲ.

 

Neither I drank the drink milk nor did I eat the bread.