The Kamar is a dominant scheduled tribe of Raipur District of Chhattisgarh (earlier Madhya Pradesh). The Kamar are traditionally shifting cultivators and expert hunters. During the sixth Five Year Plan, Kamars were identified and included in the list of primitive groups of Madhya Pradesh. According to Marton (1911), “The Kamars of Raipur and Kanker where alone they are found, are not the same as the Kamars of Chhotanagpur who are Lohars. The Kamars are a very ‘primitive’ tribe who claims to have once ruled in the Bindra Nowagarh tract of Raipur and to have been ousted by the Bhunjias. According to a legend quoted by K.C. Dubey (1983) in the past the Kamar is known as Gauntias or Master of the Land. It is believed that when they saved the lives of Rama and Lakshmana from starvation, they were presented with bows and arrows by the princess from Ayodhya and it is since then they come to be known as Kamars or the people who yield bows and arrows. Sheering (1879) described the Kamar as follows: “The Kamars are found in the remote jungles of Raipur, where they lead a wild life, subsisting on game, and on the product of the forest. They have a great aversion to agriculture”. According to Haeckel, who coined the word “ecology” in 1870, ecology means…. The study of the economy, of the household, of animal organisms. This includes the relationships of animals with both the organic and inorganic environments, above all the beneficial and inimical relations that Darwin referred to as the conditions of the struggle for existence (Quoted by Bates, 1953). The ecological vantage-point in anthropology was expressed as early as the 1930s by Julian H. Steward. Perhaps the most important contribution of his “method of cultural ecology” was the recognition that environment and culture are not separate spheres but are involved in dialectic interplay or what is called feedback or reciprocal causality” (Kaplan and Manners, 1972). Steward believed that some sectors of culture are more prone to a strong environmental relationship than other sectors and that ecological analysis could be used to explain cross-cultural similarities only in this “culture core”. The culture core consisted of the economic sector of society, those features that are most closely related to subsistence activities and economic arrangements” (Steward, 1955). Kamar economy is discussed in terms of how they earn their livelihood.

Methods

The present paper is mainly based on the field work conducted in the year 1997. This study was conducted in Gariaband (earlier Madhya Pradesh) The data were collected from seven villages (188 households) of Gariaband block by using anthropological techniques. This paper deals with the mode of subsistence of a preliterate tribe i.e the Kamar, who lives very close to the forest and hilly environment and tries to reveal how the Kamar are dependent on the physical environment without disturbing the functioning ecosystem for leading a successful adaptation.

Ecological Settings

Raipur district occupies the south-eastern part of the state Madhya Pradesh which is the biggest state in the country. The district is situated between the parallels of latitude 1947′ N and 2153 N and the meridian of longitude 8125’E and 8317 E. The total area of the district is 21258 Sq. Km. It occupies about 5% of the state area and is the third largest district. It is more than double the average six of a district in Madhya Pradesh. Raipur in the most populous district in the state with a population of 3,9022,609 census 1991: The district is divided into five tahsils, Baloda Bazar, Raipur, Dhamtari, Mahasamund, and Gariaband, (formerly known as Bindranawagarh).

The raipur district is divided into major physical divisions. Viz., the chhattisgarh plain and the hilly areas. To the east of he chhattis-garh plain the hilly areas cover the southern part of Dhamtari Tahsil, The Southern part of Dhamtari tahsil, the south-eastern part of Baloda Bazar tahsil and the Bulk of Mahasamund and Bindranawagarh (now gariaband) tahsils. Most part of the district drain into the Mahanadi. The Mahanadi and its important tributaries like the pairi, the seonath and the jonk are in Raipur District.

The principle hills are Gauragarh, the Milcowa, Doratii, the Deodonga, the Atang, the kanda and shringi. Of these hills Gourgarh is the longest plateau which runs length-wise on the western border of Gariaband tahsi 1. There are some kamar Villages on the western border of Gariaband tahsil. There are some kamar villages on these plateaus, which are difficult ot readh and deserves special treatment for development.

The block Gariband covers an area of 660.73 sq.km. The area under forest is 372.86sq.km nearly 40% of kamar area is under forest. The area is mostly undaulated and hilly. The entire agency area is rich in flora and fauna. Sal (shorea Robusta), teak (techangs grandis) Bija (Dhaora), Mahua (Madhuca latifolia) and Bamboo (Dendrocalmus strictus) are founding this area, it is predominantly a sal forest area, many fruit bearings trees such as Tendu, (Diospyrous malanoxylon) and char (Buchnania latifolia) are found. Teak Plantations have been raised by the forest department. Bamboo is found in the eastern part of the area. Among the fruit bearing trees tendu (Diospyros malnoxylon), Char (Buchnania latifolia), Mahua (Bassia latifolia) are found which are used to supplement their meager diet. Grasses like ‘Phool Bahari and khadar’, used fro domestic purpose by the kamars are found in this area.

Chhind is a palm tree the leaves of which are used for thatched the roof of their huts. In the past the kumar habitat was full of wild carnivorous and herbivporous animals. Tiger, Sambhar Cheetal, Deer and wild Bear are still present in the forest though their numbers are reduced.

The climate of the area is temperate. The winter is generally cool and the summer is considerably hot. About 90% of the annual rainfall is received in the monsoon. The mean maximum temperature in May is 41.9c. The relative humidities are high during the south­west monsoon seanson, being generally over 75%

Population Composition

The total population of the five tahsils of Raipur district at the time of 1961 and 1971 census operations are given below:

  Tahsil Area Sq.km. population
(1961-71)
1. Raipur 2895.4495392
2. Boloda Bazar 3580.2499665
3. Mahasamunda 3674.2456209
4. Dhamtari 2076.4 328920
5. Bindra-nawagarh 2268.5 221818
  21213.4 2002004

The kamar is the dominat scheduled tribe of this district. Some of their major tribes are Binjhwar, gond, kawars, halwa etc.,

The kamars inhibit the hill district of raipur, Bilaspur, durg and surguja. But they are mainly concentrated in gariaband and dhamtari tahsils of Raipur district. The total population of kamar in Raipur is  14,922 as per survey in 1995 by kamar Development Agency, Gariaband, Raipur. According to census of 1981, the total population of kamar is 17,517 in Madhya Pradesh and 5,939 in maharashtra. The population distribution of kamar in four blocks of Gariaband Tahsil is as follows:

Block Total Village Kamar Village Kamar Hamlets Number of House Holds Population
Gariaband 164 78 108 1173 5261
Manipur 162 54 64 754 3343
Nagri 252 84 –    88 772 3432
Chhura 169 54 65 644 2796
Total 747 270 325 3343 14922

Communication facilities are very meager. The pucca roads connects rajim and Deobhog bus route. The block is connected with district head quarters raipur and with neighbouring state orissa. Most of the villaves can be approached only cither by forests footpaths of hill tracks. Some villages are connected with link roads of ordinary made. Telephone connection are very poor, and it is connected with district headquarters Raipur.

Economy

When S.C. Dube studied the Kamar in 1951, he found that most of the Kamars continued the practice of shifting cultivation not withstanding the fines imposed due to Land Revenue Act, for it contravenes Section 202. Even others who have taken to settled plough cultivation halfheartedly like to return to dahi, if the government permits. In fact, their practice of shifting cultivation assumes three important forms: dahi, beora and guhad. But this practice of shifting cultivation is no more found among the Kamars.

Sources of Kamar livelihood

Dube (1951) described Present study (1997) reveals
1. Shifting Cultivation 1. Basketry
2.  Hunting 2. Minor forest produce collection
3. Fishing 3. Collection
4. Basket Making 4. Fishing
5. Food Collection 5. Charcoal Selling
6. Trade and Barter 6. Fuel wood Selling
7. Occasional labour for wages 7. Agricultural Labour
8. Liquor Selling
9. Plough Cultivation

Basketry

Basketry is an important aspect of the economy of a section of the Kamars. Basket making is an easy task for the Kamar. The Kamars have a reputation for their skill in weaving of beautiful patterns of baskets. But bamboo craft is a very difficult source to depend upon and there are two reasons behind this. First bamboo is available in inaccessible areaofmalewa hill in nawaparh, mainpur and khariar circles. Second the kamar require green bamboo for which there is a strict restriction on cutting bamboo by cutting bamboo by the forest department.

The villagers of pantora collect the green bnrnboo from a distance of 16-17 km from their village. Sometimes, bamboos ate supplied by the kamar development agency from the forest depot at the rate of Rs.60\- per 100 pieces of green bambii of 4-5 metre. After bringing to the village, the bamboo is cut into portable sizes and split into fine strips or threads before working it out into various sizes and patterns of baskets like tokna, supa, etc., generally bamboos are allowed to dry for a couple of days. Thereafter, splitting processing is done and dipped into the water for increasing their pliability. The simplest form of weaving consists of inter winning of pliable branches or twigs are between stiff rods. In plain up and down weaving, warp and woofs are of the same width and pliability. This type of weaving is used for mats and to a lesser extent in making of baskets. Bamboo word is neither a laborious nor a monotonous work. Even the old jpersons weave baskets with pleasure. Nag (1958) described, ‘snee the craft is of intermittent nature, the worker also engages himself in agriculture and forest work.

The kamars also make strong bamboo mattresses (tant) which are very durable. The fishing traps like choriya, dandar manufa­ctured by them are remarkable for their quality. The kamars also make very good khaumri and mora (rain )bamboo splits and dried tenduorparsa leaves. The kamars sell their bamboo products in the neighbouring villages and weekly markets. Those who do not do cultivation depend on basketry for their livelihood. The bamboo products are sold for grain or cash. The kamars of pantora sell them for paddy in the nearby village like malgaon, kodabatar, mohera and for cash in the distant villages ofpondi, pandka etc.

Minor forest produce collection

Since time immemorial, forests have been an integral part of human life especially in tribal life. The term minor forest produce (MFP) covers all animal, vegetables and minerals products products other than wood found mainly in forest regions. The area in which the kamar live has a rich potential in minor forest produce collection of forest produce is a supplementary source for their livelihook. Some of the vegetable and animal products are of edible value. Others provide material for their hut and some add variety and comfort to their monotonous lives. The collection, partial] processing and the selling of minor produce is an important occupation of the aboriginal and contributes nearly 13.79 per cent to the total income of the kamar family. Some kamar families earn upto 30 per cent who depend on this occupation primarily. Grasses like phubahari (thysamolaena mamima), kanta bahari, are used forn making brooms. Next to grass, bamboos are the most important minor forest product. Most of the household utensils are made from bamboos. Khaddar is another important grass while chhind (phoenix acaulis )a shrub used for roofing of their hut.

Edible forest products: The mohua flower (bassia latifolia) is the most important edible product of the forest. They call mahua as Roti. For mahua is one of the aboriginals’ main safeguards against the effect of crop failure. Mahua collection in a productive employment in which all the members of the seasonally break the monotony of their diet. The ripe tendu fruit (diospyros malanoxyln) is either eaten fresh or it is dried and stored for subsequent use. They enjoy the sweet and very pleasant pulp of cahr (vycgababua katufikua) and the break the hard shell and take out kernel i.e., chironji, which has great demand in the market. The other fruits which suppoement their food items are mangoes, tamarinds, and various kinds of futus (fybgu). Fresh leaves of papal (fucys reigiosa), buhar (cordial dichotoma), tamarind, munga (drum stick) are cooked as vegetables and are relished by them. Similarly, kuchai (colocasia leaves), chench (wild vegetable), lal (anarabtgys gabgetucts) and bgiri vegetables are liked and eaten by them. The young shoots of bamboos are an item or delicacy to the kamars.

A large variety of edible roots and tubers (kanda) also occupy an important place in their diet. The kenwat (ventilage oalyculala) kanda is roasted and eaten . The peethe and kundru kanda is cooked in boiling water for about an hour, and is then eaten karu (duisicrea daemona), kanda being bitter in taste a special prepara­tion. It is left to boil in an earthen pot for the whole night. The next day some ash is put in thepot and athe tubers are kept boiling for an hort. Then the tubers are wahed in fresh water, they tar finallu boiled for about an hout and are eaten. The kamars fry thr hechandi (duiseirea dyeniba) kanda in oil and eat it with great relish. The tikhur- (narabta arybdubacea) kanda is cleaned and is left in the sun for two days to dry. It is then left in cold water for three to four hours. Afterwards they make a paste of it and filter that paste of it and filter that paste with a thin cloth. It is then put in sun light to dry. It is generally used when some one is suffering from fever. Since becgandi and tikhur fetch a good price in the market they generally do not consume them as food.

Non-edible leaves: Young tendu leaves (Diospyros melan-oxylan) have a great commercial importance to the Kumar. They call these tendu leaves as tendu pan. The kamars collectand sold them to the contractors in large quantities. Collection is generally done by women and boys. The leaves are tied up into bundles of 100 and then put out to dry under the sun. these leaves are used in the manufacture of biris (local cigarette). The leaves of Mahua, sal (shorea robusta), tesk (tectona grandis) are also used in making chongis (smoking pipes), umbrellas, plates, donas (leaf bowals) etc.,

Tanning Materials: The fruits of harratree (terminals chabula) are used for tanning. They mix this with the soil to make it black in colour which is used for plastering the floor of the house. The kamars also collect some soil of different colour from forest like chuhimitti (white soil), piun mitti (yellow soil) and Karia mitti (black soil). These soils are used for decorating their mud house in various colours other materials of minor importance are bahera (terminalia belerica) and aonal. (emblica officinalis)

Insect Products: lac is a resinous exudation from the insect laceifer lacca which feeds on the sap of certain trees referred to as host trees. The most important lac gost trees are kusum (sohiei-chera oleosa), palas (butea monosperma), ber (zizyphus jujube), Kusum tree is very common throughout the district of Raipur. The two annual crops of lac are found, one lasting generally from July to December and the second from January to June. They sell lac in the nearby market.

Resins &gums: dhaora (anogeissus latifolia), saja (termianalia tomentosa), gindol exude gums of different varieties which are used in calico printing, leather work and in paper industry. The kamars call this gum as lasa. A resin known as dhup is obtained from sarai (shorea robusta )tree which yields a transparent gum or resin which is used medicinally and is burnt as incense. These lasa and dhup are also sold in the market.

Honey collection: The kamars are experts in collecting honey. Being a forest tribe they have developed a special liking for honey (mandras). They rarely consume it; rather they sell all the honey which they take out from the combs. Honey readily fetches a good price in the market. The whole amount thus earned, is spent for community purpose like, purchasing microphone. Recorder, search light etc, They collect honey in a group.

Hunting: Hunting is one of the traditional occupations of the tribe. The kamars deserve reputation for being expert expert hunters. A kamar always carries with him his bow and arrows whenever he goes out in to the jungles. Though hunting cannot be regarded as a regular source of food supply, occasionally, the kamars supplements their diet with the help of hunting, the kamars go out for hunting both individually and collectively. Since the introduction of the New Forest games rules, the kamars are bound to check their freedom of hunting. Now this traditional occupation plays a less dominant role in the subsistence economy of kamars. Now a days the kamars go out to hunt for recreation and time pass. Dog (kenklo)is common in hunting. It helps much to kill chitra (squirrel), bhatela (rabbit), gohiya, kotra arter pursuing them.

Animals being hunted include bhatela(rabbit), kutri(small deer), sura(pig), saikukri(porcupine). neura (mongoose), chitra(squirrel) musua (field rat), gohoiya etc., the kamars eat field mice with great relish. The kamars do not trap birds. Occasionally they may shoot a peacock, pondki, harial etc. the skin of hunting animals also are consumed with flesh. The meat is distributed to all the hunters in the case of group hunting.

Fishing: Fishing is another source of livelihood for the kamar. A common method very often employed by the kamars is to dam up a stream with sand, through the water out and catch the fist. By this methgod they get small fishes, in the late winter and early summer. Often they organize communal fishing, when they select a large water area for fishing. Such expeditions are possible whin the currents in the rivers are not strong. At first, the area for fishing is closed by a dam. Then they introduce manj(intoxicating substances) for intoxicating the fish. Mannar fruit, kaiya fruit, roots of the kumhi herb, bhainri fruit, are used by the kamars as manj. After putting manj in bounded water. The fish get unconsc­ious and after a while fishes come upto the surface layer of the water. The adults wait for the bigger fish and shoot it with large iron arrows like chgovo, dohola.

Charcoal selling: The selling of charcoal in nearby urban centre provides a meager source of livelihood for the kamar. It is needless to say that they earn their livelihood through a risk situation, hidden from the government’s eyes. It is because of the new forest preservation act by the Government. There is a lesser demand for charcoal in urban areas. The wood which is not fit for timber, is therefore, converted in some places into charcoal. The sarai, karra, bija (pterocarpus marsupium), Babul (acacia Arabica ) are best suited for charcoal. They used to collect these from the forest named sajapani forest, kundpani jungle, singhifuli and Bhaonra pathra forest.

At a time, they cut 30-40 pieces of tree of 10 feet or 5-6 piece of 25 feet long tree or 1 piece of 40 feet. Then they cut into pieces and arrange for firing. After three hours they cover it by sand for ceasing the fire and leave it for one hour, (the burning wood if exposed to the air converts into gases and an small quantity of ash remains. But if the air is excluded by some device, the wood is converted into a number of gases and liquids and the product remaining is chgarcoal). Then they collect the black peeces of wood for selling. The price of half quintal in the form of a bora (jute bag) is Rs.20- and small bag (bora of 15kg.) costs Rs.6- this charcoal selling continues from October to may. The kamars of dongrigaon and kesodar villages are solely dependant on this economic pursuit.

Fuel wood selling: fuel wood selling is another means by which the kamars earn their livelihood. They engage in this occupation for about 6-7 months i.e., from aghan to jeth (i.e., November to may) except during the time of agriculture they take this economic persuit very easily. As there is no bar to collect dry tree, they generally cut a tree from the forest and pieces and bundle it. The men generally take the fuel wood for selling with the help of kanwr-a bojha. The cost of one kanwar varies from Rs. 20-25 and of bojha is Rs.10/- to 15- they go to the nearby urban places for sel ling especially in the morning time and come back to home within 8.00a.m. this activity may be done by husband and wife collectively going to the forest for wood collection. A section of kamar tribe who live in nearby urban places, are being benefited by this economic pursuit.

Agricultural labour: Dube (1951) pointed out that kamars have to take recouse to occasional labour and they do not like to work as agricultural farm servants; instead they prefer to work in the forest. This is to some extent true even today, but the most of the kamars depend on the agricultural labour which supplies them a meager source of livelihood of about six momths. Generally in ariny season there in no certainty of getting work in the forest. They prefer laborr work in the forest as they gey Government daily wage rate which is more then the other agricultural and casual labour. Mentioned the wages as Rs.3 per day for women and Rs.4 for men.

The kamars are now engaged in labour work to earn their livelihood after settled in the plain area. Agricural labour is common. From this economic pursuit they livelihood of 5 to 6 months i.e., july to November. They get one katha(twi abd gakf kg) paddy daily as agricultural labor. Time allotted for this labour is 8 hours, during scarcity of labour the cultivators like gond and . halwa were forced to pay much kind as wage i.e. 2 katha (kg) oaddt as wage, instead of kind the wage is paid to the labourers in the form of cash. The men get Rs. 15.00 whereas the women are blamed as having less energy. Moreover, the women are not regular as men in agricultural labour for their duty lies towards household works.

Liquor selling: Regular drinking has become way of life. The karmas not only use mahua (bassi latifolia) for their own consump­tion but also for selling the men usually spend theit time gossiping after taking liquor, while their women economically more responsible remain busy in sellintthe drink in local markets. The kamars who have taken to liquor selling as a main as a mtay of occupation try to sell at least 50 bottles of the drink per month. The price of a bottle fluctuates from Rs.l6to20. it is generally seen that a family consumes almost half of the liquor they distill and other half is sold. Monthly income from liquor comes to Rs.360 and the yearly income varies from Rs.2880 to Rs.4000. It is true that those families who take it is primary source of earning maintain it throughout the year which enables them to earn a large amount ofmoney.

Trade is also done on the dry mahua flowers in the market in the month of april may ie., the mahua producing season, they sell the flower at the rate of Rs. 3 to 4 per kg. daily income from mahua flower is Rs. 12 and it continues up to 20 days. The mahua seed is used for making oil. This oil is used for their consumption and thus it helps them to cut down the expenditure on edible oil. So it can be said mahua liquor selling is another source of livelihood to a section of kamar population.

The kamars have adopted two ways of settled agriculture- dry and wet methods which is similar to the methods of the ordinaryt chhattisgarh cultivators. Mostly they prefer dry method dry method (bota dhan) than the wet methods (ropa dhan) because ropa dhan method requires much expenditure and much labour. Lands held by the kamars are of two types one is legal (patta) other is non patta. The land is classified according to the relative position and inclination land surface. In banhni village three types of land is recognized, viz., ‘bharri’and ‘doli’.

Type of land (local term) Features Productive Crops
Bahara Watered and Low Land, (Big in Size) Paddy like Dubraj, Ramkali, Gunnatia, safari, etc.
Doli Intermediate land and bounded by wall after dressing (smaller in size) Varities of Paddy like Damar, Bhatajholi, Shukia Buta Etc.,
Bharri (Tanr) or Darra or Tikraor Dipra Upland and diy in Til (Sesamum Indicum), nature Urid (Bl akgram) & KutKi (Pan ic/um Miliare) Koda, Jondhari (Millets).

No Longer are the tribes of this area nomad who went about hunting for food and pasturing their cattle in rich lands of foliage. They are settled agriculturists. “Its is needless to say that settled plough cultivation has been taken up only by a comparatively smaller section of the tribe inhabiting the Gariaband and Chhura tracts in In Bindranawagarh Zamindari, Khasia Tract of Dhamtari Tashil, and by a few kamars in the fingershwar Zamindari. The Others who Constitute the larger and Comparatively wilder sections of the tribe, still practice their age old methods of dahi, Beora and guhad” (Dude 1951)

In Mohra Vi llage a third type of land is the upland adjacent to the pmestead which is relatively level and fertile on account of the accumulation of cow dung and is known as Bakhari (Bari) and Jharia – a fourth type is also found which is called nala by the people of Dongrtigaon. In pantora village there are three types of land -Viz, jhiri (Shallow field), Dhodo (deep in nature) and bari (homestead land). The soil is not fertile mixed with stones and laterite in nature. They also cultivate the other crops like til (sesamum indicu), Urid (Black gram), Kutki (Penicum Miliare), Jondhri, in the rainy season. Seeds are sown are just before the rains. Before sowing the fields are prepared with manure of cow-dung. They start this cultivation in the month of saon (July-August) and harvest it in kartik (October- November). These cereals are rarely cultivated by the kamars. They mostly depend on rice which is their stample food for livelihood.

Conclusions

It may be said that basket making and collection of minor forest produce are their age old economic activities which are still pursued Agricultural labour. Charcoal selling and fuel wood selling are seasonal economic activities which sustain the kamar economy in continuation for only a part of the year. This tribal society changed from one of the food gathering and hunting stage to that of settled cultivation. They have adopted settled cultivation to a great extent abandoning their age old practice of shifting Cultivation. Now hunting as a traditional occupation has little role in the kamar economy. Now days, hunting are merely a recreation for them. Many a kamar answer ”Bahonch Bharosa” (hands- the only main source of livelihood) when they were asked about the nature and sources of their livelihood the kamar economy is hand to mouth; there is hardly any Scope for saving, well said in their language ‘Jama bala hisab nehi hey, roj le ao, oj khao’ that means whatever they earn they spend the same day. There is neither the motive for saving nor for profit making.

To uplift the kamar tribe government has implemented various development schemes. Special development agency known as kamar vikash prdhikaran is established in Gariaband for the upliftment of this primitive tribe. To intergrate them with the main stream of population, Various provisions are given to the kamar. The boys having X pass certificate are getting the service as teacher some are employed temporarily for four months to protect forest form fire etc. They enjoy their duty with satisfaction. Some student are eagerly awaiting for getting government jobs who have passed the X standard. Some women are getting training from hospitals for mid wife. Their eagerness for training is highly noticeable. Now their interest toward child education is increasing as they struggle to get Government jobs. It is also seen that the villagers of kesodar lodged a complaint against the teacher of a primary school due to their carelessness towards tribal student. Now no student is attending in this primary school due to attitude of the teachers. Some of the kamars are involving in trade after opening grocery shop in their own village.

References

  1. Bates, Marston, 1953 Human Ecology, in A L Krober, ed., Anthropology today. Chicago: university of Chicago press, pp. 700-713
  2. Debey K.C1983 A plan for the Development of Kamars (a primitive tribe)- Report Tribal Research and Development Institute, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal
  3. Dube S.C. 1951, The Kamar, Universal Publishers, Lucknow Kalplan,D., and R Manners 1972 Culture Theory, Prentice -Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.pp. 79.
  4. Marton, J.T. (ed) 1911, Census of India, Central provinces and bearer, Superintendent government printing press, Calcutta, india Nag,D.s 1958 Tribal economy- An Economic study of the Baiga.) Bharatiya Adimjati sevak sangh, New delhi. 4. Naik, T.B.& Bhoursakarr, K.M. 1964″Tribal Economic organization and Market” in Bulletin of the tribal Research and Training institiute, chhindware, vol.IV no.2, December
  5. Russel, R.V. 1975 “The kamar’ in the tribes and castes of central provinces of India, Vol.3, Cosmo Publications, Delhi
  6. Sheering M.A 1879 Hindu tribes and castes, Vol.V, Calcutta, Thacker spink, p-156
  7. Shrivastava H.C 1990 ‘A socio-Economic and demographic profile of the kamar tribe of M.P.in “main in India” Vol.7, No.2, June, Ranchi
  8. Steward,J.H. 1955 Theory of culture change, university of Illinois press, urbana. pp.37.

Family distribution by primary occupation of the kamar

Agricultural Labour Agriculture Basketry Fuel wood selling Nirasrit Pension Total Housend
107(56.92) 53(28.19) 10(5.32) 12(6.38) 6(3.19) 188

Annual Calendar Showing Economic Cycle of the Kamar The main features of the kamar’s activities round the year are discussed below:

 

 

SI No Name of month (local terms) Correspond ing English Months Economic Activities
1. Chait March-April M.F.P collection, collection of fuel wood and wood used for domestic purposes, fish ing, hunting, forest labour, basket making honey collec tion, Mahua collection
2. Baisakh Apirl-may House repairing or constructing new houses, hunting, fish ing forest labour, M.F.P.collec tion, Basket making, fuel wo od selling
3. Jeth May-june Ploughing for field preparation for sowing, fuel-wood sel ling, fishing in ponds and streams, gathering the wild roots and fruits, basket making
4. Asar June-July Maize, beans are sown, till kodo, urid are also sown ploug hing the fields for agriculture, Collection of roots and vegeta bles and medical plants for treatment of diseases, basket making, engageing at agricul tural labour
5. Saon July-August ‘Biasi’ in case of dry method and transplantation in case of method is done collection of leaves, roots, bamboo shoots, agricultural labour
6. Bhado August-sept Nidai (weeding) by hand is done, agricultural labour, col lection mushrooms, again late varieties of pulses like urid, kurthi are sown
7. Kuar Sept-Oct Harvesting of early varieties of rice and millets, agricultural labour watching, guarding the crops against herbivorous in habitants
8. Kartik Oct-Nov Paddy harvesting engaged as agricultural labour, harve sting of kodo, kutki
9. Aghan Nov-Dec Thrashing crops, winnowing and storing is done. Collection of food by hunting fishing, fuel wood selling
10. Pus Dec-January Fuel wood selling basket mak ing starts, charcoal selling, cas ual labour to work in the forest
11. Magh Jan-february Fuelwood selling, Basket making, hunting and gathering from the forest starts, to work in the forest
12. Fagun Feb-march Fuelwood, selling as well as storing, basket making, fishing hunting, casual labour and for est labour, Mahua collection starts.

The above mentioned economic cycle shows their economic activities for which they are busy round the year.